This post is written by Olivia Schouten, one of our Hubbard Conservation Fellows. Olivia hails from Pella, Iowa, and has strong experience in prairie ecology. Look for more posts from her, as well as our other Fellow, Alex Brechbill, in coming months.
One of my favorite things about the change from winter to spring is the return of migratory birds. While the rest of spring has been reluctant to arrive, I am still reminded of the inevitable change in season as more and more birds arrive in the area. What started with sandhill cranes back in February just continues as killdeer, turkey vultures, and swallows, among others, seem to appear overnight when a favorable wind blows from the south.
Among the new arrivals are northern flickers, a woodpecker that despite its name, tends to feed on the ground. This migratory bird arrived here on the Platte River quite suddenly over Easter weekend, and they’ve been everywhere ever since! While common across North America, if you’ve spent any time travelling and recognize this bird, you may have noticed something interesting: birds in the eastern half of the continent are not the same color as those in the west.
In fact, there are two color variants of northern flickers. Eastern birds are called yellow-shafted flickers, and those in the west are red-shafted. The ‘yellow/red-shafted’ designation refers to the unusual coloration on the shafts of the wing and tail feathers of this bird. Where most birds’ feathers either have white, brown, or black shafts, northern flickers’ are bright yellow or salmon-red, depending on the variant. The undersides of these feathers also display the same color, resulting in bright flashes of color when the birds fly, turning a somewhat drab bird into something spectacular.
There are some other differences between the eastern and western variants. Yellow-shafted birds have a red crescent on the nape of their neck, and while all males have a ‘mustache’ patch of feathers extending down their cheek, it is black in yellow-shafted males, and red in red-shafted males. These differences are so clear, that for many years the two variants were considered different species.
However, what complicated that classification was the presence of hybrids of the two variants in a large zone stretching from Texas to Alaska, cutting right through the heart of the Great Plains, including central Nebraska. These hybrids, called intergrades, display combinations of facial traits found in the red- and yellow-shafted variants. In my home state of Iowa all you will see are yellow-shafted flickers. However, here in Nebraska I see flickers with their wings flashing everything from yellow to dark salmon red, and all colors in between.
Now considered one species, northern flickers are just one example of a common trend seen among North American birds. If you flip through a bird field guide and study the range maps, you will often find pairs of similar species where one occurs in the east, and one in the west, with the transition between the two occurring right down the middle of the continent. Eastern screech-owls and western screech-owls, ruby-throated hummingbirds and black-chinned hummingbirds, eastern and western wood-pewees, eastern and western meadowlarks, vireos, bluebirds, warblers, and on and on and on, you can’t escape the pattern. For many, it’s as if there was an invisible wall through Oklahoma, Nebraska, South Dakota, and upward keeping these species from spreading any further.
Clearly, something is going on in the middle of the continent when it comes to birds, and this hybridization sometimes makes it difficult for ornithologists to determine where species begin and end, or whether they should even be considered different species at all. One of the leading hypotheses is that climactic changes during past ice ages created unsuitable habitat in the center of the continent that separated previously connected populations. Time allowed for the divergence of these now separate populations, and when they reconnected as the ice retreated, enough differences had accumulated that they were no longer the same species.
Of course, this divergence was carried to varying degrees of completion depending on the bird. While some of these species pairs, like flickers, hybridize quite readily, and in fact never quite diverged enough to be different species at all, others, such as meadowlarks, while nearly identical in appearance, developed different enough songs that their separation was maintained.
So pay attention to the flickers around you here in Nebraska and elsewhere along the hybrid zone, and see if you have can spot the different variants!
That tail in the last photo is excellent! I haven’t seen this behavior before. I was so surprised at the number of flickers when we moved to North Dakota, a place with limited trees. In the fall we chase them up in pastures where I think they are getting seeds or insects out of cowpies. They are also the worst at damaging grapes. When I see them flocking, you can be sure the grapes are ripe and will be gone in a few days.
Thanks! I didn’t even realize I caught that photo until I was looking through the pictures. And it doesn’t surprise me at all that flickers are out rooting in cowpies for insects!
Olivia, I am in upstate NY, where we of course have the yellow-shafted variety. My husband and I have been enjoying a pair, and sometimes three, flickers in our yard this spring. I believe they are starting a nest in a cavity in one of our large old black locust trees. In a few weeks we will be driving across the county from NY to AZ, and you can bet we will be looking at birds as we go. We will be sure to check for the red shafted flicker, among other variants. Thanks so much for you wonderful post and photos.!
I hope you have luck! I’ll admit that the bright red-orange red-shafted flickers are some of my favorites!
I enjoyed this article very much. The information will be very usefull in the field and in the class room. Thanks
Cool! Thanks. I only knew there were Flickers. I knew our locals were Yellow Shafted, but I didn’t know there were others. Now, I’ll look more carefully.
I believe the “invisible wall” is the (former) treeless high plains. The stark lack of trees across a huge swath in the middle of the U.S. was probably a sufficient barrier to cause the isolation for differentiation of species to occur. I say “former” because humans with their proclivity to alter landscapes have suppressed prairie fires and planted millions of trees for shelter belts etc. where there were none before. This has resulted in numerous unforeseen impacts. One, for example, is that now one of the greatest threats to the Spotted Owl in the NW is competition from Barred Owls. Barred Owls were previously only found in the eastern forests but now, thanks to humans, have been able to migrate west.
Yes, I believe I remember hearing that was possibly one of the causes of these bird pairs, though I still wonder what caused the difference between grassland birds like meadowlarks? I hadn’t realized that some species were now threatened because birds from one end of the continent were moving to the other, but that is certainly one obvious consequence of human activity!
Wanted to make sure you had heard about native grassland restoration at Canyonlands & Arches N. P.’s. They are using x-shaped screens they’ve entitled Connectivity Modifiers (ConMods)… to help trap wind blown soil and prevent erosion … seemed likely to be of interest to you
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Very nice post!
There is another factor going on with flickers that have a mixture of yellow and red feathers — consumption of the fruit of some types on non-native shrub honeysuckles when feathers are growing can deposit red pigment in yellow feathers. I co-authored a paper on this topic: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309034765_Diet_explains_red_flight_feathers_in_Yellow-shafted_Flickers_in_eastern_North_America
You will never see a field guide just for the 100th meridian because of the variant of hybridization and the trouble of proper identification. I have been enjoying watching the Oreals that are moving through and trying to guess their species over the last 5 days.
You showed me my first flicker (yellow shafted, of course!) and now the whole prairie ecologist blog world gets to learn from you. How lucky we are! :-)