Sand Wasps

I was introduced to sand wasps (Bembix sp) by Mike Arduser when he came to visit the Platte River Prairies back in 2012.  As we stood together in a sand prairie, a bee-like creature was zipping around us with incredible speed.  Mike explained that it was a sand wasp, and that it wasn’t interested in us, but rather was looking for flies that might be hanging around us.  Since that day, I’ve paid much more attention to sand wasps and have seen them all over the place in sandy places.

Sand wasp (Bembix americana spinolae) burrowing in sand in a blowout. The Nature Conservancy's Niobrara Valley Preserve.

Sand wasp (Bembix americana spinolae) burrowing in sand in a blowout. The Nature Conservancy’s Niobrara Valley Preserve.  This wasp was about 1/2 inch long.

While we were exploring a big sand blowout last week at the Niobrara Valley Preserve, there were lots of sand wasps buzzing around, and we found some of their nest burrows.  I took a little time to sit near a couple nests and photograph the females as they worked to excavate them.  The wind appeared to be blowing just as much sand back into the holes as the bees were digging out…

Here's the same wasp as above as it digs sand out of its burrow.

Here’s the same wasp as above as it digs sand out of its burrow.

The video below shows both the blowing sand and the valiant effort of the wasp to excavate its burrow despite the wind.  If the video doesn’t appear correctly, try clicking on the title of this post to view it through an internet browser.

Mike tells me these sand wasps and their relatives catch and paralyze flies for their young.  They lay eggs in their burrows and provide the flies as food for the larvae.  Females, of course, do all the work to create the burrows, catch the flies and lay the eggs.  The males are just around for mating purposes.  While the wasp larvae eat flies, both the adult males and females feed on nectar and pollen.

Here are a few more images of the sand wasps we saw last week, along with the blowout they were living in.

A big blowout where wind keeps sand moving and open.

A big blowout where wind keeps sand moving and open.

The sand wasp shown earlier takes off and twists its body to zip away.

The sand wasp shown earlier takes off and twists its body to zip away.

This was a little smaller wasp from a different species that was nesting in a different part of the blowout from the first wasp.

This was a smaller wasp from a different Bembix species that was nesting in the same blowout as the first wasp.

...and that wasp was also digging its burrow.

…and that wasp was also digging its burrow.

As often happens with invertebrates, once I’ve been introduced to a creature, I start seeing it everywhere.  Even better, I’ve yet to meet an invertebrate that doesn’t have a fascinating background story.  It’s an awesome world we live in, and we share it with some pretty great neighbors.

Thanks, as always, to Mike Arduser for his help with identification and ecology.

Posted in Prairie Insects, Prairie Natural History, Prairie Photography | Tagged , , , , , , , | 6 Comments

Voting Results: Prairie and Bee? or Bee in Prairie?

Back on August 4, I posted a selection of similar images and asked for help selecting the best of four compositions.  As has been the case in the past, there was no clear consensus, but there was a winner.  That winner was PHOTO NUMBER FOUR.

Bee on blazing star #4. (Vertical - just to complicate things)

This was the most popular choice from the voting.  (Though not by a landslide.)

Photo number four got 25 votes, followed by photo number one with 22 votes.  Photos number two (7 votes) and three (3 votes) lagged far behind.  However, it was interesting that all four compositions got votes, and even numbers two and three had very passionate supporters.

Bumblebee on blazing star. Photo #1.

This one (photo number one) finished a close second to photo number four.

For many people, the choice came down to whether or not the image was a photo of a prairie landscape with a bee in it (#1) or a photo of a bee in a prairie landscape (#4).  Some people liked the “surprise” of seeing the bee upon looking closely at a prairie.  Others enjoyed the more exposed bee in the vertical photo.

For what it’s worth, the photos were presented in the order I took them in the field.  I personally like number one best, but mainly because it best represents the feel I was trying to capture when I first saw the flowers and then discovered the bee.  I do like number four too, and remember making the decision to drop a little lower with my camera so the bee would be more visible against the sky.  …Of course, I like number two and number three too…

So, thanks for your help.  This is why photographers usually take many photos of the same subject, experimenting with various compositions.  It’s hard to know what you (or others) will like best later on.  This is also why I’ve never enjoyed photo contests.  It’s relatively easy to separate images that are technically good from those that aren’t, but the process is very subjective from there.  In some ways, a big selection of photos is much like an ecosystem – you can argue that one species/photo is more important than another, but it’s really the abundance and diversity that makes both a photo contest and ecosystem work!

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Photo of the Week – August 11, 2016

I made a quick trip up to the Niobrara Valley Preserve this week.  As always, there was a treasure trove of unexpected finds.  Here are some of them.

Bison calves are growing fast. Their coats have darkened to match the adults, and their horns are starting to look like more than just little bumps.

Bison calves are growing fast. Their coats have darkened to match the adults, and their horns are starting to look like more than just little bumps.

Bison tend not to hang around wooded areas for shade, but they also like to rub on trees aggressively enough to keep them stunted or even kill them. This bull was one of several bison that had evidence of recent rubbing on eastern red cedar trees.

Bison tend not to hang around wooded areas for shade, but they also like to rub on trees aggressively enough to keep them stunted or even kill them. This bull was one of several bison I saw this week that had apparently been recently rubbing on eastern red cedar trees.  Good for them.

Robber flies are amazing predators and always fun to photograph, but this might be my favorite of all time. This gorgeous robber fly landed in a sand blowout and was consuming a leaf hopper.

Robber flies are amazing predators and always fun to photograph, but this might be my favorite of all time. This gorgeous robber fly landed in a sand blowout and was consuming a leaf hopper.

Sand bluestem (Andropogon hallii) is sometimes lumped with big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) and sometimes considered a separate species. I'm not entering that argument. However, sand bluestem (shown here) does tend to have much hairier flowers.

Sand bluestem (Andropogon hallii) is sometimes lumped with big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) and sometimes considered a separate species. I’m not entering that argument. However, sand bluestem (shown here) does tend to have much hairier flowers.

How many of you noticed the small larva in the above photo?  I didn’t, until I was going through the photos on the computer the day after taking them.  Look below for a more close-up view of the larva.  You can see it at its original scale just to the left of the bottom left of the inset image.

Fly larva? Whatever it is, it sure is small. Wouldn't you love to know what it's doing there?

Fly larva? Whatever it is, it sure is small. Wouldn’t you love to know what it’s doing there?

This tumbleweed (Russian thistle, aka Salsola iberica) was lodged up against a fence in a big sand blowout.

This tumbleweed (Russian thistle, aka Salsola iberica) was lodged up against a fence in a big sand blowout.

This tiny pale bee (Perdita perpallida) is a specialist in prairie clovers (Dalea species) but I've only seen it on one species - Silky prairie clover (Dalea villosa)

This tiny pale bee (Perdita perpallida) is a specialist in prairie clovers but I’ve only seen it on one species – Silky prairie clover (Dalea villosa).  Its pale color helps it blend in very well. Thanks to Mike Arduser for ID and information.

What is more evocative of the Great Plains than bison grazing in a prairie dog town as the sun goes down over an expansive grassy landscape?

What is more evocative of the Great Plains than bison grazing in a prairie dog town as the sun goes down over an expansive grassy landscape? 

Posted in Prairie Animals, Prairie Insects, Prairie Natural History, Prairie Photography | Tagged , , , , , , , | 9 Comments

Hubbard Fellowship Post – Community-Based Stewardship and Long-Term Management

This post is by Eric Chien, one of our 2016-17 Hubbard Fellows.  Eric hails from Minnesota, with an undergraduate education from Bowdoin College in Maine.  He has a strong background in prairie management, and hopefully a bright future in that field as well. 

The most compelling experience of the North American Prairie Conference was on a sweltering Tuesday afternoon on a winding path through the Nature Conservancy’s Nachusa Grasslands. While I was beaded with sweat from just walking in the Eastern Tallgrass humidity, I saw three people, laden down with seed bags, hand harvesting seed and ripping problem plants from the ground. Jeff Walk, Illinois TNC Science Director and our guide for the walk assured us that these volunteers were not planted. Furthermore, he noted that this was a fairly regular sight at Nachusa.

Three people. Tuesday morning. Maybe I come from a different community context, but for me, seeing three, independently working, non-professional, unpaid, human beings engaged in land management is akin to seeing a prairie chicken drum on a buffalo’s back under a wildfire sunset. Okay, maybe not quite that, but my point is that intensive, regular community engagement and participation in land management is a rare phenomenon. It was a sight that made me wonder how we plan to achieve our restoration goals for individual sites beyond the immediate future. My predecessor, Evan Barrientos, had begun the work of pulling on this loose thread, and I encourage you to read his post on volunteer stewardship if you have not, but I think it begs further unpacking.

These volunteers helped plant prairies and wetlands on our Platte River Prairies.  It can be more difficult to recruit long-term volunteers to help manage restored (and other) sites.

These volunteers helped plant prairies and wetlands on our Platte River Prairies. It can be more difficult to recruit long-term volunteers to help manage restored (and other) sites.

It is a great feeling to stand in a big tract of prairie knowing that it was once cropland. It is a crushing feeling to stand in a big tract of prairie overrun and choked by invasive plants. And it is unfortunately not an uncommon feeling to have both experiences on the same prairie, just a couple years apart. Many prairie restoration sites have found out what happens when management capacity does not match the scope of their restorations: a seemingly endless game of catch-up with invasive plants ever threatening to swallow a new prairie. Addressing the pitfalls of that disjunct approach was one of the Grassland Restoration Network’s primary prescriptions for restoration success (here is the link to that report). However, I want to think beyond even the 5-15 year timeline to the idea of management in perpetuity. In the reality of a fragmented landscape, it appears likely that even the best restorations (well planned and executed) will require regular management for those lands to continue to achieve our respective management goals for them.

It leads us to important questions: As the acreage of restored prairie grows, have we invested in the organizational groundwork to ensure the continuity of our achievements? Is there a need for innovation in stewardship structures as we seek to move to an increased scale of work? Or should we aim to increase funding for professional management staff augmented with whatever traditional volunteer programs that we have?

Invasive species control is a critically important part of land management, both on restored and remnant sites.

Invasive species control is a critically important part of land management, both on restored and remnant sites.

As someone who is seeking a professional stewardship career, more money aimed at increasing the capacity of professional resource management sounds awesome. As someone who has seen the scope of need for stewardship, I have a hard time envisioning that approach rising to the challenge on its own. So then the big question- what does effective community-based stewardship look like?

I think it sort of looks like Nachusa Grasslands. In a talk at the conference, Bill Kleiman, the Nachusa Grasslands land manager, said, “we don’t just produce grasses, flowers, and wildlife, we also produce people.” I don’t know if steward production is part of their long-term management plan, but they seem to approach it with an intentionality that suggests it is. From the little glimpse I saw of it, Nachusa Grasslands has produced a stewardship structure that draws heavily on a capacity that is less tied to The Nature Conservancy, and more attached to the place. The stewards there love the land they work on. That trait gives it a unique resiliency. Organizations come and go over the short and long-term. If we want the successes we have in places to be maintained then we need to make sure we are building stewardship structures that have some independence from the organizations that own the land on which they work. Private lands conservation has focused on empowering non-professionals by necessity. Yet, I think if we take stock of our public and NGO-owned stewardship needs, there is a similar necessity for involving community stewards in a significant way looming on the horizon. I think for many of us it is already here.

 

 

 

Posted in Hubbard Fellowship, Prairie Management, Prairie Restoration/Reconstruction | Tagged , , , , | 7 Comments

Register Now – 2016 Grassland Restoration Network Workshop

It is time to register for the Grassland Restoration Network’s 2016 workshop.  The Grassland Restoration Network has helped people working on prairie restoration share techniques and conservation strategies since 2003.  You can read my blog post from last year’s workshop in Minnesota here and from the 2014 workshop at The Nature Conservancy’s Nachusa Grasslands in Illinois here.

One of the best ways to learn from each other is to visit each others' projects and evaluate them together. 2015 Grassland Restoration Network workshop - Minnesota.

One of the best ways to learn from each other is to visit each others’ projects and evaluate them together. 2015 Grassland Restoration Network workshop – Minnesota.

The 2016 workshop will be September 13-14 right here in Nebraska.  It is co-hosted by The Nature Conservancy’s Platte River Prairies and Prairie Plains Resource Institute.  You can see the agenda and other information for the workshop here.

Registration for the workshop is open now through August 19.  There is no registration fee for the first 75 people to register, but you’ll be responsible for your own transportation and lodging, and some meals.  To register, send an email to Mardell Jasnowski at mjasnowski(at)tnc.org.  Include answers to the following questions:

Name

Organization/Affiliation

Address

Phone Number

Email Address

Will you take part in the optional Tuesday morning tour in Aurora?

Will you be eating Tuesday evening supper?

Will you be eating Wednesday lunch?

Do you have any dietary restrictions?  If so, list them here:

Thank you to Pheasants Forever and the Nebraska Environmental Trust for helping to cover the costs of registration for this conference.

 

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Quick Field Day Note

The forecast calls for a 50% chance of rain for our Field Day tomorrow.  We’re not scared.

If it rains hard, or if there’s lightning, we’ve got plenty of room in the house and the shop down the hill to go ahead with our planned sessions.  We’ll go out in the rain for you and bring plants inside to identify, and we can talk about prairie restoration by looking through the equipment we use to harvest, dry, clean, and store seed.  And during breaks in the rain, we’ll go hike.  Or we can have hikes for those who don’t mind a little rain and indoor sessions for everyone else.

Regardless, come hang out with us.  We’ll make it worth your while.

Posted in Uncategorized | 2 Comments

Photo of the Week – August 4, 2016

This Wednesday, I arrived at Spring Creek Prairie Audubon Center southwest of Lincoln, Nebraska just as a heavy morning fog was beginning to dissipate.  I had about 10 minutes before a meeting, so I grabbed my camera, threw on some rain pants and waded into the wet grass.  Lanceleaf blazing star (Liatris lancifolia) was blooming in large patches in the restored prairie near the parking lot, so I wandered over to take a look.  A wet bumblebee was sitting on one of the flowering stems, waiting for the sun to dry it off.  Using a wide angle lens, I took several photographs of the bee and surrounding flowers, trying out some different angles and compositions.

Here’s the problem: I can’t decide which composition I like best.  So, as I’ve done many times before, I’m presenting them to you.  To be honest, this crowd sourcing method hasn’t been particularly helpful to me in the past, since there is rarely a strong majority among voters.  Being an eternal optimist, however, I’m going to keep trying. Plus, many of you seem to enjoy voting.

SO – tell me which of these you like best.  Please?  Thank you.

Bumblebee on blazing star. Photo #1.

Bumblebee on blazing star. Photo #1.

Bee and blazing star #2.

Bee and blazing star #2.

Bee on blazing star #3

Bee on blazing star #3

Bee on blazing star #4. (Vertical - just to complicate things)

Bee on blazing star #4. (Vertical – just to complicate things)

Posted in Prairie Insects, Prairie Natural History, Prairie Photography, Prairie Plants | Tagged , , , , , , , | 65 Comments

The Role of History In Today’s Prairie Management

Past performance is not necessarily indicative of future results.

I’m no expert in financial investing, but I’d like to retire someday, so I muddle along the best I can.  As I skim through various financial statements and investment newsletters, I often see some variation of the disclaimer above.  The concise statement emphasizes that while history is important, many factors change over time, and we shouldn’t simply assume that what happened previously should drive what we do now.

I was thinking about this statement and its implications while attending the North American Prairie Conference last month.  During presentations and hallway discussions, the topic of history came up frequently.  How often did prairies burn prior to European settlement?  Were bison only abundant in eastern tallgrass prairies after human populations crashed during the smallpox catastrophe?  What was the role of big native ungulates like elk in suppressing woody plants?

Fire

We have reasonably good data on the historic fire frequency in prairies around the U.S.  How should that information drive today’s prairie management?

Questions like those are fascinating to contemplate, and important to our understanding of how prairies have changed over time.  Which of us wouldn’t jump at the opportunity to step into a time machine and go see North American prairies in the 1400’s or other historic times?  Wouldn’t it be fantastic to somehow find and pore over hundreds of years of data on bison population numbers, plant species composition, elk feeding patterns, and lots of other grassland phenomena?  While, that kind historic data is very limited, mining what we do have is fascinating and instructive.

However, just as with stock market investments, we can’t just look to the past to guide what we should do in the future.  The business world has evolved over time.  Simply investing today in the same corporate stocks that were profitable 30 or 60 years ago wouldn’t make a lot of sense.  Instead, we need investment strategies that fit today’s world.  Many companies disappeared over time because their products became obsolete.  Those that are still around, like General Electric, Nokia, and IBM, reinvented themselves.  Why?  The business landscape changed and they changed with it.

The prairie landscape has changed too.  Row crop agriculture and other human developments have replaced grassland across huge swaths of our country, leaving many prairies relatively small and isolated.  Trees and shrubs have flourished in landscapes where they were once scarce, and woody encroachment into small prairies now comes from all directions.  Many new species of plants and animals have found their way into North America, and some have become very aggressive.  Significant amounts of nitrogen from industrial and agricultural sources now enter grasslands by both air and water, changing soil chemistry to favor some plants over others.  Finally, prairies have endured a century or two of impacts from factors such as fire suppression, livestock grazing, haying, and broadcast herbicide use.  Today’s remaining prairies don’t look or function as they did a century or two ago.

corn

Prairies today exist within landscapes that are dramatically different from what they looked like historically.  Row crop agriculture has replaced grassland across much of the Midwest and Great Plains, and trees, invasive species, and many other factors threaten the remaining patches of prairie.

Big changes to prairies and surrounding landscapes mean that land managers face equally big challenges as we try to sustain biological diversity and ecological function.  For most managers, invasive species suppression is our most time consuming and expensive task.  Because of that, we are always searching for new ideas, strategies, and technologies to help us be more effective and efficient.  The herbicides we use to kill invasive plants were not part of the prairie ecosystem a couple hundred years ago, but I can’t imagine trying to do our job without them.  Similarly, brush mowers and the tractors that pull them are certainly not historically accurate, but they are invaluable when creating firebreaks or mowing down large patches of encroaching brush.

Today, land managers’ decisions about when to burn a prairie should be based on the myriad management objectives we face rather than on what the historic average fire frequency might have been at that site.  In many prairies, managers struggle to weigh the benefits of frequent fire to control brush and other invasive species against the potential impacts of frequent fire on vulnerable insects, reptiles, and other species.  Looking at historic fire patterns can help us understand how prairies developed, but today’s fire patterns need to address current challenges and help us sustain our imperiled grasslands.

Similarly, studying the historical population abundance of bison or elk can teach us about how those species influenced prairie communities long ago, but decisions about grazing as a contemporary management strategy need to be made based on today’s objectives and needs.  I wrote last week about the introduction of bison into the Nachusa Grasslands in Illinois, and attempts to capture the impacts of bison grazing at that site.  I’m sure the staff at Nachusa have been in numerous discussions about what historic bison populations were like in what is now northern Illinois.  The decision to bring bison in, however, was not based on history, but rather on defined needs for habitat structure and plant community management.  Nachusa staff are hoping to see more diverse grassland bird communities, for example, and positive effects on a wide variety of mammals, reptiles, and invertebrates.  They also hope bison will help maintain high plant diversity.  In particular, they hope to increase the long-term survival of relatively short-lived plant species that often disappear over time in restored prairie.

bison

Bison and cattle grazing can be useful in meeting some prairie objectives, but is not appropriate for all sites.

Here in Nebraska, The Nature Conservancy uses both cattle and bison to achieve prairie management objectives.  Grazing strategies are designed with specific objectives in mind, and we collect as much data as we can to evaluate the impacts of grazing on plant and animal communities.  Grazing helps us suppress the vigor of both non-native invasive grasses and aggressive native grasses and foster a more diverse plant community.  Plant species that would otherwise be outcompeted by dominant grasses can usually maintain strong populations under various combinations of intensive grazing and long rest periods.  Both cattle and bison can also help us create a wide variety of habitat conditions, including large areas of both short/sparse and tall/rank vegetation and other areas where patches of short and tall vegetation are intermixed.

Just as with fire, mowing, and herbicide use, the value of grazing as a prairie management tool needs to be evaluated not by its historic role in local grasslands but on its potential utility today.  In many prairies, grazing is not feasible or does not fit with management objectives.  For example, grazing is unlikely to make sense in small isolated prairies where wildlife/insect diversity is limited more by habitat quantity than habitat structure, and where plant composition objectives can be met through other means.  At larger sites, however, grazing may allow managers to provide more habitat variety and/or manipulate plant competition in positive ways.  Regardless, decisions about whether or not to graze should be based upon how grazing might help address current management challenges, not upon historic populations of bison or elk.

Prairie management is complicated and we have a lot left to learn.  We can’t afford to be overly conservative or rely too much on what happened long ago.  Imagination and experimentation are crucial components of adaptation, and we desperately need to keep adapting to new challenges if prairies are going to survive.  Companies like General Electric, Nokia and IBM rightly celebrate their history, but they also have to innovate and evolve to keep up with the changing landscape.  Prairie managers need to innovate and evolve to keep up with changing landscapes too.  Let’s learn what we can from the past but keep looking for new ideas and tactics so we can keep prairies healthy and vibrant well into the future.

After all, prairie conservation is worth the investment, right?

Posted in Prairie Management, Prairie Natural History | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , | 7 Comments

Photo of the Week – July 28, 2016

Those of you who have followed this blog for a while know about the big wildfire that swept across The Nature Conservancy’s Niobrara Valley Preserve back in 2012.  One of the results of that fire was the death of almost all of the Preserve’s ponderosa pines on the bluffs north of the river.  I’ve posted several times about the recovery of that portion of the site, which we are watching closely and learning from.  We haven’t seen any new pines coming in yet, but grasses, sedges, wildflowers, and deciduous shrubs are all flourishing.

Bark beetle galleries beneath the bark of a pine killed in the 2012 wildfire. The Nature Conservancy's Niobrara Valley Preserve.

Bark beetle galleries beneath the bark of a pine killed in the 2012 wildfire. The Nature Conservancy’s Niobrara Valley Preserve.

As new plants colonize the site, the old skeletons of pines and eastern red cedars are starting to break down.  Some of those dead trees are tipping over completely, while others are breaking off further up the trunk.  The result is a landscape that is a little more difficult to walk through (and dangerous on windy days), but one that is still very pretty.  The gradual degradation of the tree skeletons is a necessary part of the recovery and transition of this area to a different ecological community.  We think that pines will eventually recolonize the site, but it’s going to be many years before that happens to any great extent.  In the meantime, there is a great abundance of wildlife, insects, and wildflowers living between the falling trees.

While up at the Niobrara Valley Preserve earlier this summer, I spent a little time wandering in, ruminating about, and photographing the area where the old trees are breaking down.  Here is some of what I saw.

More and more pines are breaking off at the base and falling.

More and more pines are breaking off at the base and falling.

Some trees are falling, but many others are just losing their tops, creating a more ragged look to ridge tops.

Some trees are falling, but many others are just losing their tops, creating a more ragged look to ridge tops.

Despite the fact that the trees are dead, I still find them aesthetically pleasing, including as foreground for sunset light.

Despite the fact that the trees are dead, I still find them aesthetically pleasing, including as foreground for sunset light.

I’ve always enjoyed looking at the patterns I find in ponderosa pine park.  It’s hard to resist photographing them.  This last trip, I was seeing specific images in some of the patterns, so I photographed a few and present them here for your consideration.  They are a kind of Rorschach test, I suppose.  What images do you see?

Bark Pattern A - what do YOU see in it?

Bark Pattern A – what do YOU see in it?

Bark Pattern B. Lots to see in this one...

Bark Pattern B. Lots to see in this one…

Posted in Prairie Natural History, Prairie Photography | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Platte River Prairies Field Day – August 6, 2016

Our next Field Day at The Nature Conservancy’s Platte River Prairies will be Saturday August 6.  We hope that by making it on a Saturday we will make it more accessible to families and people whose bosses don’t let them out of work on weekdays just to go hike around in prairies.  I hear there are jobs like that…

Bill Whitney (Prairie Plains Resource Institute) and his combine - harvesting grass seed at The Nature Conservancy's Derr Tract - Central Platte River, Nebraska.

We’re proud that Bill Whitney (Prairie Plains Resource Institute) will be on hand to talk about prairie restoration.  He is the godfather of prairie restoration in Nebraska and can tell you anything you want to know about the methods, history, and philosophy of restoration.

Please come out and join us.  We’ll have hikes and presentations on prairie ecology and management, prairie restoration (with Bill Whitney of Prairie Plains Resource Institute), prairie plant identification, and gardening with prairie plants.  You can also look for monarch butterfly adults and caterpillars and catch/learn about prairie insects.  Over lunch, I’ll give a brief presentation on prairie ecology with lots of photos.

There is no cost to attend – just bring your own lunch, bug spray, and sunscreen.  We’ll provide some snacks to eat and lots of wildflowers, insects, and birds to look at.

Click here to see the agenda and more information on the day.

Posted in Prairie Animals, Prairie Insects, Prairie Natural History, Prairie Photography, Prairie Plants | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment