I’m up at the Niobrara Valley Preserve this week. While collecting data today, we spotted a brood of sharp-tailed grouse, a couple other baby birds, and a whole bunch of cute red bison calves. I got photos of all of those except the grouse (they’re really fast!). I might post some of those cute baby photos later. Tonight, though, I have just enough time to post a photo of the other babies I saw today.
Female wolf spiders are known for carrying their brood around on them until they’re big enough to go off on their own. I watched this family for quite a while this evening. It looked to me like mama was about done with this whole child care thing. She mostly just stood still while her babies clung to her, or periodically scurried around, looking for a better place to hold on. The only moving she did was to periodically wipe a few spiderlings off her face. Her immobility made photography easier, but I felt pretty bad for her.
I’m guessing the spiderlings will be leaving soon. In fact, a few of them made it up onto my camera while I was watching their mom. I wish them success, but I also hope their mom gets to take a nice vacation, or at least enjoy a good grasshopper dinner after they leave. It looks like she deserves it.
During the last week, I’ve been lucky enough to find and photograph two different wolf spiders, so I figured I should probably dedicate a short blog post to them. The first wolf spider I found was a cute little bugger out in the prairie the other day. I was out looking for monarch eggs and caterpillars and saw the spider scurry between clumps of vegetation. Since I had my camera in hand, I stopped and had a visit. The second spider was in our basement and was considerably bigger (2 inches in diameter with legs). I took it outside where it could be happier, and photographed it before letting it roam freely in our garden.
There are a lot of big fuzzy spiders that resemble wolf spiders, but true wolf spiders have a characteristic eye pattern that sets them apart. If you look at the above photo, you can see that there are two large eyes above a straight row of four smaller eyes. If you look even closer, you might be able to see two additional eyes behind the big ones that point up and to the sides. You can see those last two eyes more clearly in the photo below. The layout of those eight eyes is unique to wolf spiders, so if you ever wonder if a big fuzzy spider is a wolf spider, just look it in the eyes and you’ll know.
There are more than 2,000 species of wolf spiders across the world, and they are a fascinating group of creatures. Although they are free-roaming spiders (they don’t create a web and hang out on it), they still use ambush as their primary means of hunting. They’ll usually sit quietly and wait for prospective prey to come within striking range. Wolf spiders hunt mostly at night, and their eyes are well-adapted for seeing in low light. However, wolf spiders are also very adept at sensing and using vibrations to identify their prey. Their hairy legs aren’t just for looks; they also act as part of a complex system of vibration sensors. Wolf spiders can distinguish between patterns of wing beats or footsteps to help them determine what kind of creature is coming near.
My daughter made me proud the other day by telling me she was able to impress her college friends with some of my favorite spider trivia: the reason spider legs always curl up when they die. Spiders have flexor muscles on their legs (muscles that pull the legs toward their bodies) but not extensor muscles to push them back out again. Instead, they use hydraulic pressure to extend their legs. A fluid called hemolymph is pushed into the legs, counteracting the flexor muscle pressure enough to extend the legs. It sounds like a cumbersome system, but if you’ve ever seen spiders run and jump, it’s clear that it works very well. When a spider dies, it no longer has hydraulic pressure in its legs to counteract the flexor muscles so the legs naturally curl up toward the body.
This has been a week of big black spiders. …In a good way.
First, my wife brought home a huge black wolf spider one of her biology students caught. It stayed the weekend, and my stepson helped me photograph it on Sunday. Later this week, I found the biggest jumping spider I’ve ever seen just outside the house at our Platte River Prairies field headquarters. I had to photograph that too, of course… Here are some of the photos of those spiders, and a little bit about how I got them.
To photograph the wolf spider, I utilized a long-standing technique of mine. Some of you might remember a previous post I wrote about using a wheelbarrow as a wildlife photography studio. I brought out the same wheelbarrow again for this spider, but had my stepson assist me by holding a diffuser (to soften the bright sunlight) and helping to keep the spider from getting away. Having an assistant made the job much easier, though also much less humorous for any potential observers of the process. (Though I’m still pretty sure my neighbors are keeping their eyes open for houses in better neighborhoods. Between the pile of garter snakes beneath our backyard snake board and the giant hairy spider in our wheelbarrow, we’re not exactly everyone’s picture of the ideal neighbor!)
When I first saw the jumping spider, I was talking with our Hubbard Fellows and waiting for someone to meet us at the house. It was perched on a Maximilian sunflower plant in the prairie garden. I put it in a paper bag until I had time to look more carefully at it. Later, I took the top of the sunflower plant the spider had been on, cut it off, stuck it into a pocket gopher mound, and carefully relocated the spider to it. The Fellows then got to watch me squirm around on my hands and knees with my camera, trying to cajole the spider into posing for the camera. We did promise the Fellows a wide range of experiences, I guess…
I’ve spent more than 20 years looking at spiders and other invertebrates in Nebraska prairies, and I pride myself on being a fairly keen observer. It’s an inspiring thing to me that I’d never seen either of these spider species before this week. I hope I never stop finding new prairie species to marvel at.
…especially species that fit into my wheelbarrow!
Many thanks (once again) to Bill Beachly of Hastings College for his help identifying these spiders – which, by the way, he called “lovely ladies”.
It’s amazing what you can find when you’re crawling around on the ground…
As I was on my knees counting plants inside a square meter plot frame last week, this little (big?) wolf spider came crawling out of the litter. I managed to corral it into the handy little ziplock bag I carry for just such emergencies, and a half hour later when I returned to my truck, I let it back out to see if it would pose for photos. Not having my wheelbarrow photo studio handy, I had to make do with just blocking its repeated escape attempts with my hand until it got fed up and decided to sit still and consider its next move. It gave me about 30 seconds to squeeze off a few shots.
Then it dashed off again, and I let it go. I had plants to count, and the spider had a meal to find.
Last week, I spent two days working with local school kids at Griffith Prairie north of Aurora. On both days, my job was to get the kids excited about insects and spiders, teach them a few things, and let them catch and inspect as many things as they could. It was a great couple of days, with excellent weather and enthusiastic kids. Quite a few of the kids had never had any real positive exposure to insects or spiders, so it was rewarding to see them smiling as they held little creatures they would have stepped on or run from the day before. (By the way, my experience is that kids who say they won’t touch an insect or spider can be often be talked into holding an inchworm, or even a cute little jumping spider. Once they’ve done that, other species come pretty easily. In fact, you might say inchworms and jumping spiders are “gateway bugs”…)
Anyway, during lunch on one of the days, Jan Whitney from Prairie Plains Resource Institute found a gigantic wolf spider on the ground, and I scooped it up and put it in a ziplock bag to show the kids. It was the biggest spider I’ve ever seen in Nebraska, and the kids were duly impressed. At the end of the day, I took the spider home to get some photos of it before releasing it.
This is the part of the blog post where I’m going to risk both ridicule and a fairly substantial loss of credibility by sharing a few of my secret techniques for getting fabulous photos of small creatures. I’m banking on the fact that most of you have been reading this blog long enough that you’ll put up with a few oddities and gimmicks and keep reading even after you’ve seen how the sausage is made, so to speak. At the same time, a few of you might actually decide to steal a few of my secrets, and that’s ok too. Now, before you get the wrong idea, the vast majority of my photos of insects and such are taken in the wild, and the subjects are photographed doing whatever they would have been doing even if I wasn’t peering through my camera at them. In some cases, however, it’s not possible to get a photo of a particular animal under those circumstances (have you ever tried chasing a wolf spider through tall grass??) and an alternative plan is needed.
So, my first step when I got home with my spider-in-a-bag was to find my wheelbarrow. Yes, that’s right – after extensive testing, I’ve determined that my old rusty wheelbarrow has all of the characteristics of a perfect backyard photo studio. Here’s how it works. First, I fill the bottom of the wheelbarrow with some appropriate looking habitat. In the case of the wolf spider, I put in some old leaves laying around near our compost pile. I patted them down into a nice natural-looking layer on the bottom of the wheelbarrow. Next, I push the wheelbarrow into a place in the yard where the bright sunlight is partially diffused by the leaves of my tall tree. Not complete shade, and not open sun, but something in-between, where the light is almost bright enough to make shadows. Once I’ve got my habitat and light arranged, I set up my camera and tripod, and I’m ready to introduce the photo subject.
The wheelbarrow photo studio works best with animals (or plants!) that are not incredibly quick, can’t fly or jump long distances, and that are small enough to fit comfortably into a wheelbarrow. Spiders, small turtles, lizards, and such work very well. Sandhill cranes? Not so much. In this case, the wolf spider was a good runner, but I was banking on the fact that it’d have to scrabble up and over the metal sides of my old wheelbarrow before escaping, and that my own cat-like reflexes would be sufficient to (gently) nudge it back inside the wheelbarrow before it got away completely.
This is probably a good time to say that while just about any wheelbarrow will probably work for a wildlife photo studio, there are a few specific design characteristics that are worth shopping around for. The most important of these is sides that are steep enough to slow down a quick spider, but not tall enough to create shadows across the habitat on the floor of the studio. It turns out that the 50-year-old barrow I inherited from my grandparents has the perfect mix of those characteristics. No, it’s not for sale.
Ok, anyway, I opened up the ziplock bag and let the big wolf spider run out into its new temporary habitat. Of course, it immediately shot off toward the edge and leaped out of the wheelbarrow into the yard. My cat-like reflexes notwithstanding, I managed to recapture it and try again. This time, I was able to keep it corralled and to turn it back every time it tried to get out, and after about 10 or 15 tries, it finally paused to assess the situation. This is known among wheelbarrow photographers as “The Moment of Opportunity”. I grabbed the camera, focused in on the spider, and squeezed off a couple shots before the spider caught its breath and shot off toward the side of the barrow again.
After a certain number (trade secret) of chasing/pausing/photographing sequences, I finally had enough photos that both the spider and I were satisfied with the shoot, and were ready to call it a day. During the amount of time (trade secret) it took to finish the shoot, however, I gladly took advantage of one of the other great attributes of a wheelbarrow studio, namely its mobility. Often, when the spider would pause, it would be facing away from the best light direction. In that case, I just moved the wheelbarrow around so that spider was lit more photographically. In addition, I had to move the wheelbarrow’s location several times to keep up with the pattern of dappled light that was shifting across my yard as the sun kept moving. (Yes, I know it’s the earth that’s actually moving, but that just confuses the story, doesn’t it?)
For those who are thinking about trying this at home, here’s a good tip for successfully photographing wildlife in a wheelbarrow… It’s often good to get the camera down to the same level as the creature you’re photographing, so you can look the subject right in the eyes when you take its picture. My wife will read this and snort (attractively) because she frequently has to remind me to do the same thing when I’m photographing our kids. (My only excuse is that it’s hard enough to keep the kids in the wheelbarrow that I sometimes forget to think about camera angles.) Anyway, the fact that the wheelbarrow studio is off the ground a couple feet makes it even easier to arrange the tripod in such a way that you can get good face-to-face photographs of spiders, turtles, or other cute little creatures. That up-close-and-personal perspective usually creates a more interesting photograph than a more “aerial view”.
Well, there you go. I hope this has given you a peek behind the curtain and that you’re not too unsettled by what you’ve learned. I also hope the local hardware stores (or antique stores) will be able to handle the run on wheelbarrows over the next week or so as all of you rush out to build your own portable wildlife photography studios!
No spiders or humans were injured during the shooting for this blog post. Both the spider and human involved experienced some degree of temporary exasperation, but appeared to recover. The spider was released unharmed.
I photographed this juvenile wolf spider on an 18 degree (Fahrenheit) day in the middle of the winter. At the time, I was walking along a frozen creek, admiring the hoar frost on the surface and looking for photos of ice formations. The presence of a spider on a frozen creek was so unexpected, it took me a few moments to register what I was seeing. Not only was there a spider alive and moving around in temperatures well below freezing, it was walking fast enough that I had a hard time following it with my camera. I still don’t understand how it’s possible, but I saw it nonetheless (and have photographic evidence to back me up!)
When I got home, I did some research and found that it’s not unusual for wolf spiders to be active for much of the winter, particularly on days when temperatures are around or above freezing (although 18 degrees F is well below that!) During the winter, wolf spiders feed on other tiny invertebrates that can handle cold temperatures – primarily snow fleas (aka springtails or Collembola).
This has become one of my favorite photos for a couple of reasons. First, it’s a nice photographic image. More importantly, it’s a fantastic reminder of how resilient and surprising nature is.