I feel like I need to apologize to long-time readers of this blog. This is the seventh spring season I’ve photographed and shared via this blog, and each of those spring seasons starts with essentially the same wildflower species. Pussytoes (Antennaria neglecta), ground plum (Astragalus crassicarpus), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) – in no particular order – are the first three wildflowers I find and photograph almost every single year. I’m always excited to find them because they are an important signal of a new growing season, but also because I’m desperate for something vibrant and colorful to photograph after a long winter.
Sharing those spring flower photos with you each year feels to me like a shared celebration of the annual prairie rebirth, but I also imagine some of you checking in on the blog, seeing the photos, sighing deeply, and checking right back out again. If that’s you, I really do apologize, and you’re free to go. I’ll try to do better next week. For the rest of you, guess what! It’s spring! Look at these gorgeous flowers!!
Wildflower season has officially returned to our area. I was out at my family’s prairie last weekend and found pussytoes (Antennaria neglecta), buffalo pea (Astragalus crassicarpus), and sun sedge (Carex heliophila) in bloom. Here in my yard, both the pussytoes and Carolina anemone (Anemone carolinianum) are blooming, along with the little blue-flowered weedy speedwell (Veronica persica) that always pops up around our garden and sidewalk edges. A few bees are moving around too, and there have been several kinds of flies visiting the pussytoes flowers. Here are a few photos of early spring flowers from this week.
Here’s something I know almost nothing about: Slugs.
I found this slug in one of our prairies yesterday morning, and managed to get a few decent photos of it. Slugs are largely considered to be pests in gardens, but I’ve never heard any discussion of the ecological role(s) they might play in grasslands.
Sure, I know that slugs are gastropods that resemble snails without shells. They have rasping mouthparts, eyes on tentacles, and leave trails of slime as they travel. But what do they actually DO in prairies? How important are they in the ecosystem functioning of a grassland? My understanding is that most slugs I see are probably introduced species, but are they causing any negative impacts in prairies?
The best information I could find online was this field guide to the slugs of Kentucky. I thought it was great, but certain members of my family found it wildly amusing that someone had made a field guide for slugs. Those same family members seem largely uninterested in learning more about slugs, but I think they (slugs) are intriguing creatures, and would love to have someone feed me information on their ecological roles.
I drove out to our family prairie yesterday to look for some early spring activity. I scared up a couple of turkeys and a big owl, watched a red-tailed hawk soar for a while, and listened to the western meadowlarks tuning up for the breeding season. No snakes were to be found, but there were plenty of leopard frogs along the edge of the pond. I’d hoped to see some wildflowers, but there weren’t many blooming yet. Apart from abundant sun sedge (Carex heliophila) plants on the steeper slopes, the only blooms to be found were patches of pussytoes (Antennaria neglecta). Not that there’s anything wrong with pussytoes!
Our prairie sits right on the transition between tallgrass and mixed-grass prairie in Nebraska. As such, it can be dominated by big bluestem and indiangrass, or by western wheatgrass, side-oats grama, tall dropseed, and other shorter grass species – depending upon recent weather and management. Part of the property is unplowed prairie, but much of it was seeded in the early 1960’s by my grandpa soon after he bought the property. The formerly cropped areas were seeded with grasses, but have also been colonized over time by many of the forb species from the hillier unplowed prairie on the site.
Pussytoes grows well in both the unplowed and seeded portions of the prairie. It can be found in small patches consisting of a few individuals, but also in living room-sized populations. The plant is considered to be allelopathic and reduces the height of surrounding plants, which makes large patches fairly easy to see. It also seems to do well in the areas of the prairie favored by grazing cattle. (Whether this is because the cattle are drawn to the shorter grass or because the pussytoes do well in heavily grazed areas I can’t tell – it’s likely both!)
Regardless, the pussytoes had the wildflower blooming stage to themselves on this early April day. I needed to scratch my itch for wildflower photography after a long winter, so I laid down with my tripod and focused in on a few plants. As often happens when I take the time to sit down in a prairie, I noticed other things around me. This time it was the buzzing of pollinators who had also noticed that pusseytoes were blooming. As I watched, I counted at least 8 species of pollinating insects bouncing from flower to flower, looking for those with pollen-laden anthers. Most of the insects were flies, but a few bees and a moth were among the visitors as well. Elsewhere on the prairie I saw some orange sulphur butterflies too, but never actually saw one land on a pussytoes flower.
Since our prairie is a 106 island of prairie in a landscape consisting mostly of cropland, these pussytoes were not only the sole source of pollen in our prairie – they were just about the only thing to pollinators to eat for miles. Not even the dandelions in the neighbor’s creek bottom had started to bloom yet. I’d never thought of pussytoes as a critical plant for pollinators, but apparently I underestimated this low-stature plant. I’m guessing it’s not the first time its been overlooked…